There are several ways how designers approach the process of creating custom WordPress-based websites and WordPress themes:
one can start from scratch, writing the entire code “by hand”. This is the most time-consuming and, to the best of our knowledge, relatively rarely used method,
one can take a ready-made WordPress theme (either free or premium) and tweak it until the desired result is reached,
or one can use what is called a theme framework to save a significant amount of time which would otherwise be spent on writing and testing the same code base over again.