Making Custom post types for a non profit Tedx site.

Hey gang took over a website for a friend (we are doing it free) and it really needs to be rebuilt.

It needs to have specific group of info added such as:

Speakers
Sponsors
Exhibitors
Volunteers
Our Tedx Talks

And then each group may have sub categories such as Platinum, GOld, & SIlver on sponsors.

It looks like custompress will do this but can we also then determine the info tht will be put on each post such as logo, websote, about info, etc?

Also can we display the info with shortcodes.? Again with sponsor here is our page:
http://www.tedxgatewayarch.org/partners/

Can we put a short code under each title that will display the entries (taxonomies I think) for each such as silver then gold? That way when we add an entry to say silver sponsors they will automatically populate on the page instead of us having to manually add them. By add I mean show the featured picture and link to the entry post.

Sorry I don't know a ton about this but looking for a way to make it easier.

Thanks,

Jason