Thumbnail generation might be breaking links?

There are overlapping suspects here but I'm at my wits end. At some point after integrating aws and caching I started getting broken images. Every image that was placed using the IMAGE widget for UPFRONT would give me an 'image not found' icon when I wasn't logged into Wordpress. After some hunting I've found that something is renaming and relinking the images which is making them not valid.

For Example, let's say I use a library image called "my-logo.jpg" that is 500x500 and place it into the menu bar on aws.mysite.com. After I publish and save, the view-source might show the image as "//aws.mysite.com/2016/02/my-logo-512x512-2329.jpg".

I'm not sure what the leading "//" is about instead of "http://" but it doesn't seem to matter. When I put that string into a browser I get a "not found" message. It's not until I remove the "-512x512-2329" from the image name that it will work.

I'm guessing it's trying to be smart for when I resize the image in a responsive layout, but it's breaking everything. I'm also not sure what "2329" is. It might be part of the cache busting, I don't know.

Regardless, I'm not sure how to proceed here. I can place an image with a "code" block but then I'm going to have to add in-line css to every image so that they're responsive. That's hacky enough for ME to do, but I can't ask a client to do that. Ideas?