Transfer Wordpress locally hosted site to another local host?

Hi all!
I just swapped a new hard drive into the computer that I had my locally hosted site on. I have it so the old hard drive is able to connect to my computer with the old information via usb.

I thought I would be able to just move the documents from the harddrive to my new harddrive but that didn't work.

So I re-downloaded BitNami and copied the plugin folders and theme templates over to the new hosted site. It worked fine, but I would also like to get all of my posts, nav setting, gforms, and users on my newly hosted site as well.

Is there a folder that I can copy over from the old HDD to supply all that information? Or am I going to have to install the HDD back into my computer and back it up in some way?

Note
I haven't had to transfer a site over to live host yet, as I have been working on my first site for many months, so I don't understand transferring around wordpress sites. Any video tutorials, blogs or old posts would be awesome!

Thanks for the help!