WP development workflow for multiple collaborators

Hello, would appreciate your help with a wordpress challenge I'm facing.

We are scaling up our wordpress development team and would like to allow for multiple collaborators to work on the site simultaneously, ideally via local development environments. The workflow we would like is for someone to make changes on their local WP instance, test them, migrate them to a staging instance, then do final testing before migrating to the production server.

Our biggest issue with setting something like this up would be handling database merges. Let's say Bob does some SEO optimizations on various pages, while Karen updates some theme settings. The database will have changed for both of them, and I'm not sure how to merge the changes together. Can you recommend a plugin/technology stack that solves this issue, or can point me in the right direction for setting up something like this? Would appreciate any help you can provide on this.